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As early as 1808, he had argued in the Theory of the Four Movements that the extension of the liberty of women was the general principle of all social progress, though he disdained any attachment to a discourse of "equal rights".
Fourier inspired the founding of the communist community called La Reunion near present-day Dallas, Texas as well as several other communities within the United States, such as the North American Phalanx in New Jersey and Community Place and five others in New York State. Robert Owen (1771–1858) advocated the transformation of society into small, local collectives without such elaborate systems of social organisation. He transformed life in the village of New Lanark with ideas and opportunities which were at least a hundred years ahead of their time.
The history of socialism has its origins in the 1789 French Revolution and the changes which it wrought, although it has precedents in earlier movements and ideas.
By 1968, the prolonged Vietnam War (1959–1975) gave rise to the New Left, socialists who tended to be critical of the Soviet Union and social democracy.Prominent leaders in the movement also called for a more equitable distribution of income and better living conditions for the working classes.The very first trade unions and consumers’ cooperative societies also emerged in the hinterland of the Chartist movement, as a way of bolstering the fight for these demands".Outlining principles for the reorganisation of society along collectivist lines, Saint-Simon and Owen sought to build socialism on the foundations of planned, utopian communities.According to Sheldon Richman, "[i]n the 19th and early 20th centuries, 'socialism' did not exclusively mean collective or government ownership of the means or production but was an umbrella term for anyone who believed labour was cheated out of its natural product under historical capitalism", the use of the words "socialism" or "communism" related to the perceived attitude toward religion in a given culture.
Early-19th-century followers of the utopian theories of such thinkers as Robert Owen, Claude Henri de Saint-Simon and Charles Fourier used the term "associationism" to describe their beliefs.